What is Gingivitis
Gingivitis is a periodontal disease associated with inflammation or infection of the gums . The periodontium is the supporting tissue of a tooth, and is made ??up of the gums, the alveolar bone , the periodontal ligament and the cementum. If gingivitis is left untreated it can progress to affect the rest of the periodontium. This is called periodontitis and it becomes a more complicated disease to cure.
Causes of Gingivitis
The major cause of gingivitis is the long-term deposition of plaque. Plaque is composed of bacteria, viruses and microscopic parasites that cause aggression to the gum, causing inflammation (redness). Good personal oral hygiene i.e. brushing and flossing can prevent gingivitis by removing the plaque that constantly forms after each meal.
The Scale is composed of bacteria that infect the gums, and it can not be eliminated by dental hygiene at home. But good hygiene can greatly slow the formation of tartar. To remove the accumulation of it, a dental practice called scaling or deep cleaning is required, usually at a frequency of twice a year.
Other factors that may promote gingivitis:
- hormonal changes in the blood, such as during pregnancy;
- consumption of certain drugs like anticonvulsants and immunosuppressants
- certain systemic diseases such as diabetes , leukemia or AIDS;
- an inappropriately set dental crown;
- an inappropriate dental closure (sealing);
- teeth braces because they make it more difficult to remove plaque by brushing.
Symptoms of Gingivitis
Gingivitis is characterized by a red and swollen gums that are shiny and smooth. They can easily bleed on contact, especially when brushing teeth, and sometimes even bleed spontaneously. One can sometimes see a buildup of plaque or tartar around the teeth. Healthy gingiva is usually pink in color and has the appearance of an orange peel, confirming that it is firm and well attached to the alveolar bone.
Stages of Gingivitis
Gingivitis can persist for years with slight variations in its severity. The severity of gingivitis is characterized by three stages:
. Light bleeding when brushing
. Still barely perceptible redness
. Stronger Bleeding when brushing
. Redness net
. First swelling
. Spontaneous bleeding
. Possible Wounds
If bleeding occurs spontaneously in the gums, it is important to consult your dentist quickly. Spontaneous bleeding is a sign of an increased number of bacteria responsible for periodontitis.
Classification of Gingivitis
Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is described by a gum which was destroyed in a kind of crater forming between the teeth. It is usually caused by a very serious disease, a very important stress or a weakened immune system as in patients with AIDS. This type of gingivitis is usually very painful.
Hypertrophic and hyperplastic gingivitis is described by a dramatic increase in the volume of the gum, sometimes completely hiding teeth. This type of gingivitis is usually caused by taking certain medications such as dilantin or adalat.
Prevention is by far the best way to prevent gingivitis by keeping gums healthy:
- Regular brushing of teeth, twice a day, or preferably after every meal to remove plaque;
- the daily passage of dental floss to remove plaque between teeth that remains and that is not removed by brushing;
- a scaling of teeth at the dentist, at a frequency that follows the rate of formation of tartar, but on average twice a year.
If prevention is not enough to stop gingivitis is already present, you must have other remedies. If gingivitis is supported by proper hygiene, scaling and possibly medication, it is reversible.
Chronic gingivitis is not painful: pains appear only in the case of acute gingivitis.
- rinsing the mouth with an antibacterial solution such as salt water or chlorhexidine;
- if gingivitis is hypertrophic, sometimes you have to remove excess gum surgery (gingivectomy);
- if there are pockets in the gums, look for the presence of periodontitis.